Stainless Steel Alloy 2304 Duplex 2304

Stainless steel alloy 2304, often referred to as Duplex 2304, represents a fascinating blend of properties that make it a standout choice in various industrial applications. In this exploration, we'll delve into the intricacies of stainless steel alloy 2304, uncovering its unique characteristics, applications, and advantages.

Stainless Steel Alloy 2304

Chemical Composition

Stainless steel alloy 2304 is a duplex stainless steel, characterized by a balanced composition of austenitic and ferritic phases. Its chemical composition typically includes:

  • Chromium (Cr): 22-24%
  • Nickel (Ni): 3.0-5.5%
  • Molybdenum (Mo): 0.10-0.60%
  • Nitrogen (N): 0.10-0.30%
  • Manganese (Mn): 2.0% max
  • Silicon (Si): 1.0% max
  • Carbon (C): 0.03% max
  • Phosphorus (P): 0.03% max
  • Sulfur (S): 0.02% max

Physical Properties

Stainless steel alloy 2304 exhibits the following physical properties:

  • Density: 7.8 g/cm³
  • Melting Range: 1450-1510°C (2640-2750°F)
  • Electrical Resistivity: 85 μΩ·cm
  • Thermal Conductivity: 21.5 W/m·K (at 100°C)

Mechanical Properties

Tensile Strength620 MPa min
Yield Strength400 MPa min
Elongation25% min (in 50mm)
Hardness (Brinell)290 max


Stainless steel alloy 2304 offers several key characteristics:

  1. Corrosion Resistance: Duplex 2304 exhibits excellent corrosion resistance, particularly in chloride-containing environments such as marine and coastal applications. Its high chromium and molybdenum content provide superior resistance to pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking, making it suitable for harsh environments.

  2. Strength and Toughness: With a combination of austenitic and ferritic phases, stainless steel alloy 2304 offers high strength and toughness, ensuring structural integrity and durability in demanding applications. Its superior mechanical properties make it suitable for heavy-duty equipment and structural components.

  3. Weldability: Duplex 2304 is known for its excellent weldability, allowing for easy fabrication and joining processes without the need for preheating or post-weld heat treatment. This feature makes it cost-effective and efficient for manufacturing complex structures and assemblies.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness: Compared to austenitic stainless steels such as 316 and 304, Duplex 2304 offers a more cost-effective solution without compromising on performance. Its superior corrosion resistance and mechanical properties justify its use in various applications, offering long-term savings and reliability.


Stainless steel alloy 2304 finds wide-ranging applications across various industries, including:

  1. Marine and Coastal Structures: Due to its excellent corrosion resistance, Duplex 2304 is commonly used in marine environments for offshore platforms, seawater piping, and coastal structures. Its resistance to chloride-induced corrosion ensures longevity and reliability in harsh marine conditions.

  2. Chemical Processing: In chemical processing plants, Duplex 2304 is utilized for equipment and pipelines handling corrosive chemicals such as acids, solvents, and alkalis. Its resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion makes it an ideal choice for chemical storage tanks, reactors, and heat exchangers.

  3. Oil and Gas Industry: Duplex 2304 is employed in the oil and gas industry for various applications, including subsea pipelines, risers, and storage tanks. Its high strength, corrosion resistance, and toughness make it suitable for offshore drilling platforms and processing facilities.

  4. Pulp and Paper Industry: In the pulp and paper industry, Duplex 2304 is used for equipment and machinery exposed to corrosive chemicals and high temperatures. Its resistance to stress corrosion cracking and erosion-corrosion makes it suitable for digesters, bleaching towers, and pulp processing equipment.


Stainless steel alloy 2304 offers several advantages:

  1. Superior Corrosion Resistance: Duplex 2304 provides excellent resistance to corrosion in chloride-containing environments, ensuring long-term durability and reliability in harsh conditions.

  2. High Strength and Toughness: With its duplex microstructure, Duplex 2304 offers high strength and toughness, making it suitable for heavy-duty applications requiring structural integrity and durability.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness: Compared to austenitic stainless steels, Duplex 2304 offers a more cost-effective solution without compromising on performance, providing long-term savings and value.

  4. Weldability: Duplex 2304 is easy to weld, allowing for efficient fabrication and assembly processes without the need for preheating or post-weld heat treatment, reducing manufacturing costs and lead times.

Stainless steel alloy 2304, also known as Duplex 2304, offers a compelling combination of corrosion resistance, strength, and cost-effectiveness, making it a versatile choice for a wide range of industrial applications.

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